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Indian History & Culture - Part 4


Indian History & Culture - Part 4

451 What did India import from China (during the medieval period)? Porcelain, raw silk.
452 What is Jnaneshwari? The free rendering of the Gita in Marathi, along with elucidation.
453 From whom did some sections of the Hindus adopt the concept of the purdah? The Turks.
454 Who was the guru of Harihara and Bukka? Vidyaranya. He was the one who readmitted them into the Hindu fold.
455 Who were the first two kings of the Vijayanagara Empire? Harihara (1336-1356), Bukka I (1356-1377).
456 Who founded the Bahmani Kingdom? Alauddin Hasan also called Hasan Gangu
457 What title did Alauddin Hasan adopt at his coronation? Alauddin Hasan Bahman Shah. He is supposed to have adopted the name Bahman Shah as a mark of respect for a Brahmin in whose service he had risen to greatness.
458 Which Bahmani ruler encouraged the study of astronomy and even built an observatory near Daulatabad? Firuz Shah Bahmani.
459 What was the title of the ruler of Calicut (Kozhikode)? Zamorin.
460 Who were the parents of Sankaracharya? Sivaguru and Aryamba.
461 Who wrote Ain-i-Akbari? Abul Fazl. It is a work which deals with regulations issued by Akbar.
462 Who was the Sultan of Malwa who died when he went on board a Portuguese ship for negotiations? Bahadur Shah.
463 Which European power declared that trade in pepper, warhorses and arms and ammunitions was a royal monopoly? Portugal.
464 From which area have the potato and tobacco been introduced into India? Central America. By the Portuguese.
465 Who was born in Talwandi in 1469? GuruNanak.
466 What form of worship did Chaitanya Mahaprabhu popularise? Kirtans.
467 In which language did Narasimha Mehta (also known as Narsee Mehta) compose his songs and preach? Gujarati.
468 Which language did the Turks introduce into India? Persian.
469 Who was Nizammudin Auliya? A famous Sufi saint. His Dargah is in Delhi.
470 Which was the language, apart from Persian, used for administrative purpose in the Bahmani kingdom? Marathi
471 What was the chief reason for the difference between Hindustani and Camatic music? The introduction of Persian scales in Hindustani music led to the difference.
472 Babur succeeded to the throne of this kingdom in 1494 at the tender age of 11. Identify the kingdom. Farghana. Farghana is located in modern Uzbekistan.
473 When did Timur sack Delhi? 1398.
474 Who is supposed to have invited Babur to invade India? Daulat Khan Lodi, uncle of Ibrahim Lodi.
475 Who were the opponents in the first battle of Panipat? Babur and Ibrahim Lodi.
476 How long did the first battle of Panipat last? Three hours. It was all over by mid-day.
477 Who were the adversaries at the Battle of Khanua? It was fought between Babur and Rana Sanga.
478 Babur, after defeating Ibrahim Lodi and Rana Sanga had to deal with the Afghans who had regrouped. Who did the Afghans proclaim as their leader? Mahmud Lodi, brother of Ibrahim Lodi.
479 What was the new mode of warfare introduced by Babur in India? Extensive use of gunpowder. Though gunpowder was known in India, it was not used as skilfully and in combination with cavalry as Babur did.
480 What was the name of Babur's memoirs? Tizuk-I-Baburi.
481 Which kingdom did Shahaji Bhonsale, Shivaji's father serve initially? The Nizam Shahis of Ahmednagar. When Shah Jahan captured Ahmednagar, Shahaji sought service with the Sultan of Bijapur.
482 Who was the ruler of Malwa who was among the chief adversaries of Humayun? Bahadur Shah.
483 Who built a new city at Delhi called Dinpanah? Humayun.
484 At which battle was Humayun defeated by Sher Shah? The Battle of Chausa (March 1539) and Battle of Kanauj (May 1540).
485 At what age did Sher Shah ascend the throne of Delhi? At 67 years.
486 Where did Sher Shah build a Mausoleum for himself? Sasaram. (InBihar)
487 Who repaired the Grand Trunk road that ran from the river Indus to Sonargaon in Bengal? SherShah.
488 Where was Akbar born? Amarkotinl542.
489 Where was Akbar crowned? Kalanaur in Punjab in 1556.
490 What was the title that Bairam Khan adopted? He became the wakil of the kingdom with the title Khan-I-Khanan.
491 Who was the ruler of Malwa, who was defeated by the Mughal forces? Baz Bahadur. He was a master musician and an accomplished poet. There were also stories of his romance with the beautiful and talented Roopmati.
492 Who were the two famous warriors of Chittor who held the Mughal forces at bay for almost six months? Jaimal and Patta. Akbar, to honour these two warriors ordered their stone statues, seated on elephants, be erected outside the gate of the Agra fort.
493 What did Akbar divide his empire into? Suba. Each Suba was under a governor called Subedar.
494 Who succeeded Rana Udai Singh to the throne of Mewar? Rana Pratap (in 1572).
495 Akbar sent a series of embassies to Rana Pratap. These were sent to persuade him to accept the suzerainty of the Mughals. Who led these embassies? Man Singh, Bhagwan Das, Raja Todar Mal.
496 To whom did Akbar assign the task to translate the Bible (Gospel) into Persian? AbulFazl.
497 Which famous Mughal courtier lost his life in a campaign against the tribesmen of the Khyber pass? RajaBirbal.
498 Akbar, in 1575, built the Ibadat Khana. What was it for? It was the Hall of Prayer at Fatehpur Sikri.
499 What was the original name of Raja Birbal? MaheshDas.
500 Who founded Din-I-Ilahi? Akbar. Birbal was the only Hindu to accept the new religion of Din-i-Ilahi or Tauhid-i-Ilahi.
501 Who ordered the construction of the Charminar? Sultan Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah. He was a patron of art and architecture and a poet in Dakhani Urdu, Persian and Telugu. He had the Charminar constructed in 1591-92 at the centre of the new city of Hyderabad.
502 The Gol Gumbaz in Bijapur is one of the largest single domed structures constructed. Which dynasty built it? The Adil Shahi dynasty. A whisper at one end can be heard at the other end.
503 Jehangir had to face a rebellion immediately after he ascended the throne. Who was the rebel? Khusrau, Jehangir's eldest son.
504 Which Sikh guru completed the compilation of the Adi Granth? Guru Arjan Dev.
505 Which Mughal Prince had the Gita translated into Persian? Dara Shukoh (also spelt Shikoh).
506 Whom did the ruler of Bijapur send to capture Shivaji? Afzal Khan.
507 Who was the Mughal Governor of Deccan who was instructed by Aurangazeb to invade Shivaji's territories? Shaista Khan.
508 Which Mughal port city did Shivaji attack in 1664? Surat.
509 Who persuaded Shivaji to visit Aurangazeb at Agra? Raja Jai Singh of Amber.
510 Golconda, the world famous kingdom was built on the ruins of an old Hindu Kingdom. Which one? Warangal.
511 How was Mumtaz Mahal related to Nur Jahan? Mumtaz Mahal was the daughter of Asaf Khan, Nur Jahan's brother.
512 Who is regarded as the father of Carnatic music? Purandaradasa.
513 How could Shivaji with a relatively small army fight against the army of Bijapur? By adopting Guerrilla Warfare.
514 Whom did King Prataparudra consider as his guru? Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.
515 What was the capital of the Rajput Kingdom of Mewar? Chitor.
516 What was the act that led to the martyrdom of Guru Arjan? Khusrav, the son of Jehangir rebelled unsuccessfully against his father. When Khusrav was fleeing the Mughal forces, he was honourably received by Guru Arjan and provided with some money. This was perceived by Jehangir as an act of treason and ultimately led to the Guru's martyrdom.
517 Humayun attacked and besieged the fort of Chunar because it commanded the route between Agra and the east. Who was the person who held the fort? SherShah.
518 What gift did Humayun offer Babur after Babur arrived in Agra following the first Battle of Panipat? The Koh-i-nur.
519 Who saved the life of Uday Singh of Mewar, when he was still a prince? Panna. Panna, who was Uday Singh's nurse realised that his life was in danger; she placed her own son in Uday Singh's bed. The attackers assuming that Panna's son was the prince killed him thus saving Uday Singh.
520 From where did the Hoysala dynasty rule? Dorasamudra (or Dwarasamudra). The Hoysalas succeeded the Chalukyas of Kalyana as the leading power of the Mysore area.
521 Domingo Paes, the famous Portuguese traveller, described this city as the best provided city in the world. Name the city. Vijayanagar.
522 Who was the poet who enriched Kashmiri literature with her exquisite lyrics on love and life? Habba Khatun (also spelt Habba Khotun).
523 Who is the author of the Telugu work "Amuktamalyada"? Sri Krishnadevaraya, the greatest of the Vijayanagara rulers.
524 Over which part of India did Queen Didda (980-1003)rule? Kashmir.
525 According to tradition who were Harihara I and Bukka I serving before founding the Vijayanagara Empire? Prataparudra of Warangal.
526 During the time of the Vijayanagara rule, (Krishnadevaraya) what was the title adopted by the rulers of Orissa? Gajapati (1434 to 1541).
527 Vishwambhara (Nimai) was responsible for the revival of Vaishnavism in Bengal. What was the name by which we know him? Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.
528 The Sangama dynasty (1336 -1485), the Saluva dynasty (1485 - 1505) the Tuluva dynasty (1505 -1570), and the Aravidu dynasty (1570 - 1649). These dynasties ruled over, in the sequence given, the same kingdom. Which kingdom are we talking about? Vijayanagara Empire.
529 How did Timur come to be called Tamerlane? Timur had a limp because of an injury to his leg. Due to this the Persians called him Timur-i-lang (Timur the lame) which was corrupted by Europeans into Tamerlane.
530 What was the capital of the kingdom of the Gonds? Chandrapur. Durgavati was the queen of the Gonds who fought bravely with the Mughal forces sent by Akbar.
531 Who was Gorakhshanath, popularly known as Gorakhnath? Gorakhnath popularized the practice of Hathayoga throi AD. throughout India. He lived in the 10lh - 11th century
532 Where was Kabir born? What was he known for? Kabir was born in Varanasi. Throughout his life he kept dwelling on the essential unity of all religions.
533 What are Abhangs? Who composed them? Abhang literally means unbroken. Unbroken rhymes were referred to as Abhangs. Tukaram is best known for his Abhangs. Many saints that came after him also composed Abhangs.
534 According to tradition who was the guru of Kabir? Ramananda.
535 In which year was emergency declared in post-independent India? In 1975.
536 What did the East India Company acquire as its zamindari in 1698? The zamindari of Sutanati, Kalikata and Govindpur.
537 Where is Fort William located? Present day Kolkata.
538 Which European power established itself at chandernagore and Pondicherry? The French.
539 During the rule of Tipu Sultan, what was the capital of Mysore? Srirangapatnam.
540 What were the Indian soldiers in the English army called? Sepoys.
541 During the rule of Muhammad Shah, who was the ruler of Persia who invaded India? Nadir Shah.
542 What was the result of the Battle of Karnal fought between Nadir Shah and Emperor Mohammad Shah? The Mughals lost and the Emperor Muhammad Shah was taken prisoner,
543 Among the other things, what were the precious articles Nadir Shah carried away from India? The Koh-i-noor diamond and the Peacock throne.
544 After Nadir Shah's death, which of his generals established his authority in Afghanistan? Ahmad Shah Abdali.
545 What was the Doctrine of Lapse? When the ruler of a protected state died without a natural heir, the adopted heir would not be able to succeed him. In such a case the state would be annexed by the British. The only exception would be if the British authorities approved of the adoption before hand.
546 Who was the Peshwa who signed the "Subsidiary Alliance"? Peshwa Baji Rao II on December 31, 1802. This was after the combined armies of the Peshwa and the Sindhia were defeated by the Holkar.
547 Who fought the third Battle of Panipat? Ahmad Shah Abdali and the Marathas (on 14th Jan 1761).
548 Who fought the battle of Buxar? The English fought against a confederacy of Mir Kasim; Shah Alam, the Mughal Emperor and Nawab Shuja-ud-daulah.
549 What was the result of the battle of Buxar? The English won and established their supremacy in Bengal.
550 Which Indian ruler was a member of the Jacobin Club? Tlpu Sultan.
551 Name the Indian ruler who tried to promote trade with Russia, Arabia and Turkey. He also tried to set up a trading company on the lines of the East India Company. Tipu Sultan.
552 Of which state was Martanda Varma the ruler? Travancore.
553 The capital of the state of Travancore became an important centre of Sanskrit scholarship towards the later half of the 18th century. How do we know it today? Thiruvanthapuram (Trivandrum).
554 Who founded the city of Jaipur? Raja Sawai Jai Singh of Amber.
555 Where did Raja Sawai Jai Singh build astronomical observatories? Delhi, Jaipur, Ujjain, Varanasi and Mathura.
556 Under which guru did the Sikhs become a united political power? Guru Gobind Singh.
557 He was born in a Bengali Brahmin family at Radhanagar in 1774. He served under the East India Company from 1803 to 1814. He also founded the Brahmo Samaj? Who was he? Raja Ram Mohan Roy.
558 Why was the Cripps Mission sent to India? The British Government wanted India's help in the Second World War. It sent the Cripps Commission to persuade Indian leaders to support its war effort.
559 Who was the guru of Swami Vivekananda? Ramakrishna Paramhansa. He was a saint who lived in Dakshineshwar in Bengal.
560 Over which kingdom did Ahalyabai rule? Indore.
561 Who was the first Viceroy of India? (appointed after the revolt of 1857) Lord Canning (1858-62).
562 When did the revolt of 1857 start? At Meerut, on May 10,1857.
563 Name India's first newspaper? Bengal Gazette.
564 When and where did the first Congress session take place? 1885, Bombay. Goculdas Tejpal Auditorium.
565 When did Gandhiji start his Dandi March? Marchl2,1930.
566 Who was known as the "Frontier Gandhi"? Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan.
567 Who wrote the novel, 'Anand Math'? Bankim Chandra Chatterji
568 Rabindranath Tagore renounced his knighthood as a protest against an incident. Name the incident. The Jailianwalla Baug massacre.
569 He was an uncle of Bhagat Singh and was closely . associated with Lala Lajpat Rai. He founded the "Bharat Mata" society and worked for the Ghadar party. He died on 15th August 1947. Who was it? AjitSingh.
570 What was the Kuka movement? The Kuka movement began as a religious movement. Its aim was to purify die Sikh religion by removing superstitions mat had crept into it. After the conquest of the Punjab by the British, the revival of the Sikh sovereignty became its chief aim.
571 Who wrote the poem "Heer Ranjha" (also known simply as "Heer")? Wans Shah.
572 He was born in Cuttack in 1897. He ranked 4lh in the ICS (the forerunner of the IAS) exam but resigned. He was elected President of the Indian National Congress in 1938 and 1939, in spite of opposition from Mahatma Gandhi. He organised the Azad Hind Fauj founded by Ras Behari Bose. Who was he? Subhas Chandra Bose.
573 The Revolt of 1857 started in Meerut. To which regiment did the Sepoys belong? 3rd Cavalry.
574 What was the immediate cause of the revolt? The introduction of the New Enfield Rifle whose cartridges were believed to be greased with the fat of cows and pigs. Both Hindus and Muslims resented this.
575 Who led the revolt in Kanpur? NanaSaheb.
576 Which was die Maratha family that established itself in Baroda? The Gaekwads established themselves at Baroda, the Bhonsales at Nagpur, Holkars at Indore and the Sindhias at Gwalior.
577 What were the Dastaks? They were passes that the East India Company had the right to issue for the movement of goods. The East India Company did not pay any taxes on these goods.
578 The English secured the Diwani of Bengal from the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam. This Diwani was however different from the existing practice by the Mughals. In what respect? The English got their Diwani rights permanently as opposed to the practice of limited tenure. Also under the Mughal system the office was given to an individual.
579 What did the Charter Act of 1833 achieve? It divested the East India Company of its commercial functions.
580 He was born in 1856 in Ratnagiri. He was one of the founders of the Poona New English School. In 1908 he was sentenced to 6 years imprisonment in Mandalay. He died in August 1920. Who is he? Bal Gangadhar Tilak.
581 Who recaptured Jhansi for die British? Sir Hugh Rose.
582 The Sikhs were organised into a confederacy of 12 units. What was the term given to these units? Misl.
583 Who was the first Peshwa of the Maratha kingdom? Balaji Vishwanath.
584 What help did Balaji Vishwanath render the Sayyid brothers? He marched to Delhi and helped them overthrow the Mughal Emperor Farrukh Siyar. (1719).
585 Who succeeded Balaji Vishwanath as the Peshwa? BajiRaoI.
586 He was born in 1888 in Mecca. He was a scholar of Arabic, Persian, Urdu and fluent in Islamic theology. He was the education minister in Nehru's cabinet. Who was he? Abdul Kalam Azad.
587 What was the Rowlatt Act? The Rowlatt Act sought to impose wartime restrictions on civil liberties on a permanent basis. It provided for detention without trial.
588 Who is called the 'Mother of the Indian Revolution'? Madam Bhikhaji Rustam K.R. Cama.
589 When did Bhikhaji Cama unfurl the Indian flag? August 1907 at the International Socialist Congress held in Stuttgart. This was a tricolour in green, red and yellow.
590 What was the revolutionary Jatin Mukherji popularly known as? Bagha Jatin.
591 Why did all the Congress ministers resign in 1939? The working committee of the Congress asked the British Government to state whether their war aims included the elimination of imperialism and the treatment of India as a free nation. The British did not give a satisfactory reply. Hence they all resigned.
592 When was the Sharada Act for prevention of child marriage passed? In 1929. It was to come into force from 1930.
593 Who founded the "Mirat-ul-Akbhar", the first Journal in Persian and the "Banga-Dutta" a weekly in four Languages? Raja Ram Mohan Roy.
594 He was a watchmaker by profession and had come to India from Netherlands in 1800. He however spent his entire life promoting education in India. He founded the Hindu College in Calcutta to take forward his ideas. Who was he? David Hare.
595 He was the Principal of die Sanskrit College in Calcutta and opened its gates to non-Brahmin students. He was a great proponent of widow-remarriages and the first lawful Hindu widow remarriage among the upper castes was celebrated under his supervision. Who was he? Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar.
596 Who started the Swatantra Party? C. Rajagopalachari.
597 Who gave the slogan "Do or Die"? Mahtma Gandhi. While launching the Quit India movement.
598 Where is JalHanwala Baug? In Amritsar.
599 What infamous event occurred on April 13, 1919? The Jallianwala Baug massacre.
600 Why were people gathered at the JallianwaJa Baug? They had gathered there to protest against the arrest of their leaders Dr. Saifuddin Kitchlew and Dr. Satyapal.
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